Complexity of Layered Binary Search Trees with Relaxed Balance.
Lars Jacobsen and Kim S. Larsen.
In 7th Italian Conference on Theoretical Computer Science (ICTCS), volume 2202 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 269-284. Springer, 2001.
When search trees are made relaxed, balance constraints are weakened such that updates can be made without immediate rebalancing. This can lead to a speed-up in some circumstances. However, the weakened balance constraints also make it more challenging to prove complexity results for relaxed structures.

In our opinion, one of the simplest and most intuitive presentations of balanced search trees has been given via layered trees. We show that relaxed layered trees are among the best of the relaxed structures. More precisely, rebalancing is worst-case logarithmic and amortized constant per update, and restructuring is worst-case constant per update.

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